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Introduction to Electric Forklift Speed Control System

  • 2024-03-11

The drive system is the key system of electric forklifts, generally composed of traction motors, control systems (including motor drivers, controllers, and various sensors), mechanical deceleration and transmission devices, wheels, etc. The operational performance of electric forklifts mainly depends on the speed control technology of the driving system. At present, electric forklifts have two types of drive speed control systems: DC and AC.

1、 DC speed control system

The DC speed control system of electric forklifts consists of directional switches, electronic controls, accelerators, DC motors, related wiring harnesses, mechanical transmission devices, etc. After receiving instructions from electrical components such as direction switches and accelerators for forklift operation, the controller undergoes pulse width modulation and applies a certain voltage to the DC motor to drive the forklift. There are usually two implementation methods for the speed regulation of the DC drive speed regulation system of electric forklifts, one is armature control, and the other is excitation control. When the armature voltage of a DC motor decreases (or increases), the armature current and motor torque will decrease (or increase), causing the motor speed to decrease (or increase). Due to the constant maximum allowable current of the armature and the fixed magnetic field, the control of the armature voltage can maintain the maximum torque at any speed, but the armature voltage cannot exceed its rated value. That is, the motor can be controlled by the armature voltage control method at the base speed in the speed range.

2、 AC speed control system

With the maturity and development of modern control theory for AC motors in electric forklifts, AC variable frequency speed regulation technology is increasingly being applied in the drive system of electric forklifts. The drive speed control system of an AC electric forklift consists of a battery, AC controller, induction motor, accelerator, various switches, display instruments, relevant wiring harnesses, mechanical transmission devices, etc. The DC power supply for the entire vehicle is provided by the battery pack. The communication control system is a typical CAN based system, where the CAN interface manages accessories such as communication controllers, intelligent displays, and CAN bus connections to the vehicle system, providing simple information on the condition of vehicle equipment. The AC controller converts the DC power supply from the vehicle battery into a three-phase AC power supply with variable frequency and current, driving the corresponding induction motor. The operator adjusts the required speed and torque of the induction motor to drive the forklift through commands issued by digital control variables (direction switch, seat switch, safety switch, handbrake switch, etc.) and analog control variables (accelerator and brake), and feedback detection signals through sensors such as speed, temperature, and current.

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